Donor programme or conception refers to the use of donated sperms, eggs, and embryos which can be used in couples unable to produce or fertilize own gametes.
Candidates for Donor Programme:
For Egg Donation
✓ Women with reduced ovarian function.
✓Ovarian function ceases before natural menopause. ( Premature Ovarian Failure )
✓ Congenital absence of ovaries. ( ovarian Agenesis )
✓ Surgical removal of ovaries.
✓ Women with Functional ovaries.
✓Risk of transmission of a genetic disorder to children.
✓Poor quality eggs resulting in IVF failure.
For Sperm Donation
✓ Male partner with No sperms in semen. (Azoospermia )
✓ Abnormal characteristics and motility of sperms resulting in an inability to fertilize.
✓ Risk of transmitting inheritable disorder to children.
✓ Previous radiation or chemotherapy resulting in irreversible damage.
✓ Having done a vasectomy.
Donated Eggs in conception:
For Sperm Donation
As per ICMR criteria
• Age of donor should be between 21 – 3- years.
• The donor must have at least one child of her own who is not suffering from a physical or mental disease.
• Complete medical, surgical and family history of the donor should be obtained.
• Donors are checked for viral markers and other sexually transmitted disorders.
• Identity of both parties is kept secret.
To begin with, Donor and recipient are given medication to synchronize menstrual cycle.
After menses, Donor is stimulated with Hormonal preparations to obtain eggs. The recipient is given medications to develop the inner lining of the uterus (endometrium).
Donor eggs are retrieved and fertilized by recipient’s husband’s sperms (or Donor sperms in case of male factor abnormality) by process of IVF / ICSI.
Resultant embryos are transferred to recipient’s uterus on Day 3-5 depending on quality and growth of embryos.
Frozen Embryo Transfer
Embryos can be frozen after fertilization. This avoids the need to synchronize the donor and recipient cycle. A transfer can be done in any cycle after preparing the recipient’s endometrium.
Donor Sperm in conception:
Sperm donors are taken from Licensed sperm banks Donors are screened for viral markers, other sexually transmitted diseases and inherited genetic disorders.
A semen sample is quarantined for 6months during donor screening. Donor sperms can be used in IUI (intrauterine insemination) or IVF / ICSI depending on female partner parameters.
Embryos can be donated by couples who have completed their fertility treatment or embryos can be formed by fertilizing donor egg with donor sperm. Candidates for Embryo Donation.
✓ When a couple has abnormal parameters in both
resulting in the inability to conceive by using their own eggs
✓ Having serious genetic disorder which needs to be
prevented from transmitting to children.
Steps in Embryo Donation:
✓ Donors are matched for physical characteristics of the couple
✓ Donors are screened for viral markers, infectious, sexually transmitted and inheritable diseases
✓ After the formation of embryos by IVF / ICSI, the fresh transfer can be done or they can be frozen for future use.